Parents and teachers can often feel overwhelmed when considering which approaches to use to support young people with autism. There are numerous intervention strategies and approaches advocated within the literature. Research Autism list a bewildering 978 different interventions which are used in practice. The NAS lists strategies and approaches ranging from visual supports and social stories to more ‘complete’ packages like TEACCH.
However, the evidence base for many of the approaches that are widely used is not entirely convincing. Many experts in the field would agree that no single approach can be useful for all individuals with autism, and that no approach is likely to be suitable even for the same individual over time. So just how do parents and professionals know that they are ‘doing the right thing’?
A research study published in November 2012 suggests that more evidence is urgently needed to support the use of autism interventions. The report, published in the journal Pediatrics, and comissioned by the RAND corporation concludes that the evidence for the efficacy of the most widely used interventions ranges from moderate to insufficient.
The study indicates that there is moderate evidence that Auditory Integration Training is not effective, and that there is insufficient evidence regarding the efficacy of augmentative and alternative communication devices. Also, the expert panel was unable to reach consensus about the evidence for Sensory Integration or Deep Pressure Brushing.
The researchers agreed that there was enough evidence to endorse the following approaches:
- Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA);
- Integrated behavioural/developmental programmes; and
- Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS).
The study also concludes that what is needed is higher quality, longitudinal research studies which are large enough to be able to tease out important details such as which interventions are best suited to different types of difficulties and also able to distinguish the effects of different components of interventions.